Migrating your systems and data to the cloud is a major endeavor that requires careful planning and execution. A successful cloud migration involves four key phases – discovery, planning, execution, and management. Understanding these four phases of cloud migration is crucial for moving your workloads to the cloud in a systematic manner and realizing the full benefits of cloud computing.
This comprehensive guide will walk you through the four critical stages of migrating your on-premises data center to the cloud. You will learn each phase’s key activities and deliverables and best practices for streamlining the migration process. We will cover everything from assessing your existing infrastructure during the discovery phase to cutting over DNS routing in the execution phase to rightsizing cloud resources in the management phase.
With the right cloud migration strategy, you can efficiently transition your systems and data to the cloud while minimizing downtime and cost overruns. Whether you are migrating a few applications or your entire data center, this four-phase approach will help you confidently move to the cloud. Read on to understand the methodology for a successful migration to the cloud.
Discovery Phase – Understanding Your Existing Infrastructure
The discovery phase is the critical first step in any cloud migration project. This phase involves gaining a detailed understanding of your existing on-premises infrastructure and workloads. Thorough discovery enables you to plan your migration properly and avoid pitfalls.
During discovery, you must document a comprehensive inventory of your servers, databases, applications, services, and other data center assets. Be sure to capture key attributes like:
- Server configurations (CPU, memory, storage).
- Software and OS versions.
- Network dependencies.
- Performance and usage metrics.
- Owners and business criticality.
A cloud migration inventory template can help you gather all this data in a structured way.
Next, analyze interdependencies between systems and map out your application architectures. Identify linkages between:
- Frontend apps, backends, databases, caching layers, etc.
- Shared services and libraries.
- Security controls, network segments, firewall rules.
Understanding these connections will be crucial for migrating systems in the right order and re-architecting apps for the cloud.
The discovery phase also involves identifying optimization opportunities, such as:
- Decommissioning unused systems.
- Modernizing legacy apps.
- Consolidating databases.
- Removing security bottlenecks.
You can significantly decrease your cloud costs by rationalizing your portfolio before migrating.
Based on discovery findings, you can determine the complexity of migration for each system and define the scope of your initial migration, such as:
- Start with non-production environments.
- Migrate self-contained apps first.
- Group interdependent systems into migration waves.
A phased approach reduces risk and lets you gain experience for larger-scale cloud migrations. The discovery phase lays the foundation for the entire migration process!
Planning Phase – Designing the Migration Approach
In the planning phase, you make all the key design decisions for your migration to the cloud. This involves selecting the right cloud provider and services, estimating costs and timelines, prioritizing systems, and mapping your cloud architecture. Thorough planning sets your migration up for success.
First, evaluate and select your cloud provider. Key considerations include:
- Cloud model – IaaS, PaaS, or SaaS.
- Services offered – compute, storage, networking, databases, etc.
- Pricing and billing models.
- Compliance and security capabilities.
- Global infrastructure footprint.
- Migration tools and support.
Leading providers like AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud offer many IaaS and PaaS options.
Once you pick a provider, choose the cloud services that best fit your workloads. For example, VMs for like-for-like migrations vs. managed databases for new cloud-native apps.
Next, estimate the time, cost, and resources required to migrate each application based on its complexity. Develop a detailed migration plan with timeline projections and budget. Build in contingencies for potential delays and issues.
Identify systems that are migration candidates and prioritize them into groups or ‘waves’ for phased migration. Sequence waves smartly based on:
- Interdependencies between systems.
- Business criticality.
- Migration complexity.
- Resource requirements.
Start with non-critical test/dev environments to gain experience before moving production systems.
An important planning task is designing your cloud network topology, security architecture, and IT operating model. Map out:
- VPCs, subnets, network connectivity.
- Access controls, firewalls, encryption.
- Identity and access management.
- Monitoring, automation, and processes.
You can ensure performance, security, and reliability with a well-defined cloud architecture and management framework.
Develop testing plans to validate migrated systems and cutover procedures. Test rigorously before going live and roll back if issues emerge.
Finally, build a compelling business case for cloud migration based on cost savings, agility, and other benefits. Secure executive buy-in for the migration upfront.
Thorough planning is crucial for a seamless move to the cloud. It sets you up for a successful execution phase.
Execution Phase – Migrating Applications to the Cloud
The execution phase is when you migrate applications and data to the cloud based on the earlier plan. This is when the rubber meets the road!
First, set up your cloud environment and prepare it for migration. Configure your cloud network, deploy VMs, provision storage, set up databases, implement security controls, etc, per your cloud architecture design. Test everything end-to-end before kicking off the migration.
It’s best practice first to migrate non-production systems like dev, test, and QA environments. These provide an opportunity to validate your migration process without impacting business operations. Fix any issues before moving to production systems.
For each application migration, carefully follow the data extraction, cleansing, application deployment, and cutover procedures. Test the migrated app thoroughly in the staging. Environment before going live. Here are some key testing steps:
- Functionality testing – Ensure all use cases work as expected.
- Performance testing – Load test and tune as needed.
- Security testing – Validate controls and prevent vulnerabilities.
- Failover testing – Simulate failures and check resilience.
After successful testing, it’s time to migrate production systems. This is often done iteratively in multiple stages or ‘waves’ to reduce risk and complexity.
- First, migrate stateless app tiers like web servers.
- Then, stateful tiers like databases.
- Adjust architecture as needed during the process.
Monitor closely for performance impacts or errors during production migration. Have a rollback plan ready in case you need to revert quickly.
Once migrated, redirect user traffic to the cloud environment and decommission on-premises systems. Update DNS routing and load balancers to direct traffic to the cloud.
Provide training and support for your operations teams to manage the new cloud environment. Handoff maintenance and admin tasks to the cloud ops team.
You can execute your cloud migration smoothly and safely with a phased approach and testing rigor. Now, let’s ensure success in the critical management phase!
Management Phase – Optimizing the New Cloud Environment
The management phase starts once you have fully migrated to the cloud. This phase optimizes your cloud environment and workloads for performance, efficiency, reliability, and cost savings.
You will likely manage a hybrid infrastructure of legacy on-premises systems and new cloud resources. Make sure connectivity and interoperability between the two environments are seamless.
Continuously tune your cloud resource usage to maximize efficiency and minimize costs. Right-size VMs, scale instances up or down, and leverage auto-scaling to align capacity with demand. Shut down unused resources.
Take advantage of your cloud provider’s automation, infrastructure-as-code, and self-service capabilities. The more you can automate, the leaner your cloud operations will be.
Modernize your apps to leverage cloud-native services like serverless computing, containers, microservices, and PaaS databases. This will make your apps more resilient, secure, and scalable.
Carefully monitor performance metrics for all cloud services and apps. Get alerts for any incidents that impact availability or customer experience. Optimize continually.
Maintain strong security and compliance in the cloud. Update controls and policies as needed. Regularly review permissions, network access, encryption, and other safeguards.
Drive adoption of cloud tools and processes across your organization. Offer training and support to help teams fully utilize the cloud’s benefits.
The management phase is about maximizing your ROI from cloud migration through ongoing enhancement, cost management, and adoption. With a sound cloud operations model, you can realize the full benefits of the cloud long after migration.
How ZZ Servers Can Help?
Is your organization planning a migration to the cloud? The cloud experts at ZZ Servers can guide you through the entire process. With offices in Virginia and over 17 years of experience, we specialize in seamlessly transitioning companies to the cloud.
Our proven four-phase approach covers all aspects of cloud migration – from assessing your existing infrastructure to executing the migration to managing your new cloud environment. We help you select the right cloud provider, optimize costs, implement automation, and maximize performance.
Conclusion: Key Takeaways from the Four Phases of Cloud Migration
Migrating to the cloud involves progressing through four critical phases:
- Discovery – Inventory assets, analyze dependencies, and identify optimizations.
- Planning – Select providers and services, estimate costs, and prioritize systems.
- Execution – Set up cloud environment, migrate apps iteratively, cut over DNS.
- Management – Optimize resources, enable automation, and monitor performance.
Following this structured methodology allows you to migrate successfully with minimal disruption. The four phases provide a blueprint for moving your data centre to the cloud in a controlled, low-risk manner. With careful discovery, planning, execution, and management, you can unlock the full benefits of cloud computing.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are some common challenges faced during the phases of cloud migration from an on-premises data center?
Common cloud migration challenges include underestimating effort and costs, lack of cloud skills, unforeseen complexities in moving applications to the cloud, integration issues with on-premises data, security risks, and change management. A proper cloud adoption strategy and migration approach can help mitigate these.
How can you use cloud native capabilities when migrating workloads to the cloud?
Take advantage of cloud native capabilities like serverless, containers, auto-scaling, and PaaS databases when migrating. Re-architect monoliths into microservices, optimize data models and automate processes to the cloud.
What are the key benefits of cloud migration, and why should you move to the cloud?
Benefits of cloud migration include agility, scalability, cost savings, higher availability, and faster innovation by taking full advantage of cloud computing. For these reasons, many migrate from on-premises data centers.
How can you develop an effective cloud migration strategy leveraging the four phases?
The four phases of dependency mapping, inventory, and migration wave planning help develop a migration strategy. Group interdependent systems into waves, start with non-critical workloads first and follow the recommended phases for a successful cloud migration.
What cloud migration tools and providers offer solutions to simplify the migration process?
Leading cloud providers offer services, tools, and solutions to simplify migration. Cloud migration tools help with inventory, dependency mapping, cost estimation, and automating moving resources to the cloud.